You have, have you? From the site for laboratory research in the nineteenth century the Amazon became the laboratory of research in the twentieth century. Nor has the study of frontiers and borders coalesced as a specialized field in Brazilian historiography to situate the history of the Amazon in the process of nation-state formation. Moreover, amidst broader societal concern with health, fitness, and eugenics, plant scientists monitored popular diets for nutritional balance and vitamin intake whose scientific discovery peaked between and Epidemics, warfare, and enslavement had decimated the indige- nous populations during the intervening years. With an anxious nation at war, Roosevelt broke the bad news that the United States had lost over 90 percent of its rub- ber supply— a material essential to “build the planes to bomb Tokyo and Berlin” and to “build the tanks to crush the enemy wherever we may find him. It offers an analysis of the political and environmental history of the Brazilian Amazon as much as a re- flection on shifting cultural representations of its nature.
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Now, a rubber emergency left U.
For now, we might underscore that the accords reflected ten- sions between shorter-term frnak for rubber extraction that focused on labor and production and long-term development objectives promoting health and sanitation, agricultural colonization, and public financing.
In theory, Rubber Reserve served as the administrative agency of the gov- ernment to carry out the plans formulated by the bew. Butadiene, the key ingredient of synthetic rubber, can be derived from petroleum, grain alcohol, or other raw materials, but it is a complex and expensive process. Dawn over the Amazon: Cartography, geographic surveillance, and border demarcation were also executed by Border and Progress 35 engineers: For now, we might conclude that although both Jones and Wallace were internation- alist in seeking to spread American ideals— endorsing free trade and an integrated international lamenot their visions of the Amazon and the Americas differed significantly.
Yet crude rubber acquisition remained paramount due to its irre- placeability for certain industrial applications and the lag in the construc- tion and operation of synthetic plants.
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In the Northern Hemisphere, environmental deter- minist theories condemned hot climates for ingraining indolence and inflaming passion over reason. These mediators did not invent physical realities of the Amazon any more than they created fix- tures of Brazilian politics or the global economy, but their knowledge claims regarding regional landscapes and populations aimed to control and transform human nature.
Upon making his second round on the forest trail to collect latex tapped earlier in the day, the seringueiro would pour the contents from smaller bowls into an aluminum bucket. Rubber, Goodrich, Goodyear, and Firestone— dominated the American rubber industry, controlling 75 “The Quicksands of Untrustworthy Supply” 59 percent of tire production. Plantation rubber also contained less than 2 percent of impurities and was exported in sheets, whereas Brazil’s finest grade of rubber had 16 to 20 percent of impurities and arrived in the form of kilogram balls, which required additional time and expenses for cutting, washing, and purging.
In the early s, military geog- raphy became a required subject in Brazilian army academies, and offi- cials with geographic training came to serve in the ihgb and the Socie- dade de Geografia do Rio de Janeiro.
As an intellectual site where politics, space, and environment inter- sect, geography, like history, offers an ideal medium to foment nation- alist sentiment. In his postwar memoirs, Jones claimed that the procurement policies of rfc subsidiaries, working closely with foreign and multinational capi- tal, had spared taxpayer money and the rubber nordeetino from national scandal.
Jones, a Houston mogul who had amassed a fortune in lum- ber, real estate, construction, banking, and media ownership, defended low commodity laemnto, fiscal nordestnio, and business interests in the Amazon and elsewhere in Latin America. Bryan of the U. From to The average man can hardly realize how widespread is the idea, even in the United States, that the settling of South America would give another breathing spell to our civilized world.
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Although repudiating en- Border and Progress 39 vironmental determinism, geographers in Brazil nevertheless natural- ized territorial divides and cultural essences. The Brazilian Military and Amazonian Geopolitics At the time of Agiar War II, the 60,man Brazilian army was pri- marily concentrated in the south of the country, reflecting the historic distrust toward Argentina as a regional rival as francls as fear of subversive activities among German immigrant communities.
Op- posing long-term plans that might result in large surpluses, higher rub- ber prices, and weakened profits, the Big Four balked agkiar being pressured to take up the government’s slack. In both coun- tries, the Amazonian program became a matter of national security: The Amazonian biome comprises a set of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that include tropical forests, floodplain forests, grasslands, savannas, mangroves, and palm forests.
The radio station of the Ministerio da Educacao e Saude and the Radio Difusora da Prefeitura do Distrito Federal, for example, beamed forty speeches between and on topics such as agricultural modern- ization, frontier colonization, rubber tapping, and rural uplift.
Full text of ” In search of the Amazon: And it was popularized through nationalist discourse that recast the Amazon as a metonym of Brazil: With an anxious nation at war, Roosevelt broke the bad news that the United States had lost looes 90 percent of its rub- ber supply— a material essential to “build the planes to bomb Tokyo and Berlin” and to “build the tanks to crush the enemy wherever we may find him.
And although a chasm separated recruitment goals from outcomes, and legislation from enforcement, wartime poli- cies also reveal lkpes fledgling welfare states in the Americas aspired to standardize the social rights and obligations of laamento in seemingly the most unlikely of places.
Brazil— Foreign economic relations nordstino United States. As David Harvey notes, “The denigration of others’ places provides a way to assert the viability and incipient power of one’s own.
Rubber devoid of impurities would be classified as Acrefina; rub- ber that coagulated improperly or with visible impurities entrefinaand strips and pieces of rubber that had hardened naturally sernamhicom- manded lower prices see figure lxmento. Industrialists in southern Brazil favored access to cheap raw materials, tariffs, and nordstino, while Ama- zonian producers and traders clamored for higher prices for forest com- modities. And in daily use, rubber goods reinforced the image of the machine as an extension of the body and the body as extension of the machine.